AUSTRALIA

An ‘arms race for innovation’ may be brewing between humans and trash-robbing cockatoos in suburban Sydney. Humans keep trying new defenses, like placing bricks or rubber snakes on their trash can lids, but birds keep developing strategies to open them.

BRAZIL

Fossilized teeth have revealed Brasilodon, a rodent-like animal that lived 225 million years ago, as the oldest known mammal. Scant fossil evidence had made the animal difficult to classify, but a new analysis suggests its teeth are mammalian rather than reptile.

DENMARK

Denmark has become the first UN member state to pay for “loss and damage” caused by its greenhouse gas emissions. His $13 million donation will go towards recovery efforts in the countries hardest hit by climate change.

GERMANY

The world’s first fully hydrogen-powered suburban train route is in preparation in the state of Lower Saxony. The trains only emit water and steam, providing a green alternative to diesel fuel.

INDONESIA

Skeletal analysis has revealed the oldest known limb amputation: 31,000 years ago, a child on the island of Borneo had the lower part of his leg surgically removed. The bone shows signs of healing, indicating that the child survived the procedure.

PANAMA

A multi-year study along the Panama Canal shows that lightning shapes forest composition by killing some tree species more often than others. Species with dense wood and large water-bearing tissues can thrive despite lightning strikes, while palms (which lack these characteristics) almost always die when struck.